Friday, September 30, 2016

Ways To Lose Your Beer Gut

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To lose your beer gut means taking away the traces of an unhealthy lifestyle that may be responsible for getting you a step closer to the grave.

Lose your beer gut and celebrate life

Many people are unaware of the toll their body takes as it ages that leaves your body prone to gaining weight and losing interest in exercise. What could have been your physical heydays back in your 20’s may not be the same as your 30’s, even your 40’s and up- regardless of how much time and effort you put in to your quest for physical fitness and health.

There are a lot of studies attributed to the science of physical fitness and the effects of time, age, diet and behavioural factors that impact your life. This is also true with the body developing a slower metabolism that leaves you with the risk of getting fat quick.

“You lose your love of lifting and training and then you’re running on willpower and a sense of obligation that is destined to fall in the short term,” fitness trainer Jonathan Ross said, adding that training is simply the stimulus for improvement while recovery is the response to that stimulus and one does not work without the other.

Listen to your body

Listen to your body. If you start feeling lethargic, it indicates that your body needs to turn up the heat as it could be the effects of poor eating habits that allows you to gain more fat into your body.

You need to do something to burn those fats away and couple it with a good calorie intake, good hydration, good sleep and good sense to adjust training volume and intensity, especially as you age. Always stay hydrated by drinking lots of water.

But keeping fit need not take you more than an hour ad experts agree that at least 30-minutes of time spent a day for regular cardio training and some simple but effective routines are guaranteed to let you keep a good body frame.

Treadmill workouts

Start putting back that treadmill into your daily activities and plan your regular exercise activities. If you are in a gym, use the treadmill to get you started.

Begin your workout by doing speed intervals, not only does it give a good cardio workout, it also lets you burn fat.

Start raising the incline once your body adjusts to the each difficulty level.

Go the extra mile, or in the case of the treadmill, spend a few more minutes to extend running on your machine.

Work your arms by taking it off the side rails when running. The more you move your arms, the more calories are burned.

Elliptical machine

Grab those handles while working the machine for a total body workout. Do not hesitate to use your arm strength to burn calories as your do your heart pumping cardio.

Use the resistance settings to make it more challenging. This enables you to up the ante on both the arm and leg muscles when you start tightening the resistance belts.

Keep pace. Sometimes the motion of the machine lets you slow down as you start to feel the momentum of the rotations, so make sure to maintain your pacing between 140 to 160 strides per minute.

Include intervals by alternating your workouts from easy to intense. This will give you a workout momentum that allows you to recover as well in between reps.

Weights

This is where it all begins to heat up, start with bodyweight exercises first, as studies have shown that body weight routines have been proven to burn more calories than working out with a good set of dumbbells.

Incorporate a high intensity interval training, like the Tabata workout to get you burning calories fast.

Work the body to create instability like standing on a leg while doing bicep curls or workout using an exercise ball as more muscles get to work to help you achieve that balance when working out, thus, maximizing the effect.

Do supersets, as these are good combinations that allow you to work those muscles better and help you burn fat faster.

So what are you waiting for? Start working your way to a better and fitter body.

So, know how much you need and control how much protein may consume to stay healthy and fit.

The post Ways To Lose Your Beer Gut appeared first on NUTRITION CLUB CANADA.





from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/ways-to-lose-your-beer-gut.html

Offshore Company OMICS Accused Of Publishing Junk Science

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A company based abroad is acquiring the publishing of Canada’s best medical journals. Here’s the catch: this company is accused of publishing “junk science journals.”

An investigative collaboration between CTV News and Toronto Star discovered this intriguing news.

People from the medical research community are alarmed about the company, OMICS Group Inc., while concerned about the reputation of the Canadian journals.

OMICS Group Inc. is a corporation based in Indiathat claims to offer medical and scientific journals that were reviewed by highly respected reviewers and scientific organizations. The group acquired Andrew John Publishing and Pulsus Group, two medical publishing companies in Canada.

These two companies cover Plastic Surgery, Pathology, Optometry and General Internal Medicine. Since the OMICS purchase, the pathology, optometry and general internal medicine journals all signed with different publishers.

Last August, the United States Federal Trade Commission filed a lawsuit against the company. The statements from FTC included: “…deceiving academics and researchers about the nature of its publications and hiding publication fees ranging from hundreds to thousands of dollars” as well as falsely claiming their journals undergo strict peer-review practices and have editorial boards that are comprised of highly esteemed academics.

The OMICS Group is under the open-access model which means the articles are readily available for online readers. There are other open-access publications that were proven to have a strict compliance policy for the peer review process. In light of this, OMICS has attracted a lot of attention regarding the controversy.

Rose Simpson, the former managing editor of the Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine, said that after the deal was announced, she did a little research on her own. She browsed the OMICS website and caught noticeable errors.

“There were all kinds of typos, the grammar was wrong.” She added, “In medical journals, everything has to be accurate — every comma, every word — so that was my first suspicion.”

She said she was informed that all work would be transferred to India. She was hired by OMICS but then decided to stop because she found out that the company was being sued by FTC. She immediately started warning medical practitioners as well as medical groups about this.

She added, “This is a foreign company that has a questionable reputation that has bought up Canadian companies and is using their names as a front for whatever activities they are doing, which are not necessarily above board.”

Simpson has worked with a lot of doctors and researchers. She said that they exert true effort in their work and they do it tirelessly just to conduct and analyze their studies.  “If they deal with a company that is not reputable then their manuscript becomes not reputable and they have wasted their time with their research,” she said.

Jessica Rich, director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection, said last August.: “The defendants in this case used false promises to convince researchers to submit articles presenting work that may have taken months or years to complete, and then held that work hostage over undisclosed publication fees ranging into the thousands of dollars.”

OMICS International CEO and managing director, Srinubabu Gedela said that all allegations against his company are false. “We are getting huge support from the scientific community for our open-access journal.”

He continued, “All the allegations we are getting are from Western countries…and from a few publishers as well as their agents.”

“We are disrupting their business by making scientific information open access and we are fighting for that.” Gedela said his company has support from 50,000 editorial board members.

However, there was one Canadian researcher enlisted as a member of the editorial board who confirmed that he has not participated in any journal review activities for OMICS.

As an associate professor at the University of British Columbia’s Brain Research Centre, William Jia was invited to be an editor but never received any work from OMICS.  He states that if there is an issue concerning the journal review process at OMICS, then he would like to have his name removed from the editorial board.

Robert Kalina, the former publisher of Pulsus Group, claimed that the name “Pulsus” was sold and not the corporation. The Canadian medical journals were not sold to the OMICS Group as well. The medical organizations in charge of the editorial content still own those journals.

Dr. Stephen Hwang said, “As soon as we were alerted to the fact that (OMICS) had purchased these two publishing companies, we moved immediately to sever our connection with them and terminate our contract.” Dr. Hwang is the president of the Canadian Society of Internal Medicine, the same group that owns the Canadian Journal of General Internal Medicine,

Dr. Madhukar Pai, a professor at Montreal’s McGill University and Canada Research Chair in Epidemiology and Global Health told CTV News,“This is a huge scam that is going on in the publishing world.”

Dr. Pai said he is alarmed about such companies acquiring Canadian publications. He added, “It really pisses me off that this can even be happening in Canada.”

The story is not yet finished – everyone’s still in play. Scientists in Canada are struggling to come up with a solution and some are trying to find new and trust-worthy publishers.

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/offshore-company-omics-accused-of.html

New Research On Crohn’s Disease Show Hope For Treatment

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A breakthrough from the research team of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine suggests good results for those who are diagnosed with Crohn’s disease.

Crohn’s disease is a serious condition. This involves the inflammation of the different areas of the gastrointestinal tract. The patient exhibits symptoms of abdominal cramps and pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Although research is ongoing, there is no exact cure available for the disease which can result to severe complications.

The research has found some clues as to what causes the disease. This can initiate efforts in finding new treatments and possibly a cure.

The reasons that contribute to the cause of the disease are not known however, experts state that bacteria, hereditary and environmental factors play a great role.

In addition to the list, the new study found another factor: fungi.

The study’s senior author, Mahmoud A. Ghannoum, PhD, professor and director of the Center for Medical Mycology at Case Western Reserve and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, said to CBS News, “Most of the studies that have looked at this disease looked at bacteria only.”

The author continued, “We looked at both bacteria and fungi because it is very well known that these organisms both live in our body and definitely interact with one another. So to look at bacteria alone, we didn’t really have the full story.”

The researchers gathered 20 fecal samples from patients diagnosed with Crohn’s, and 28 from patients who do not have this disease (these samples came from nine families). Aside from this, they added 21 samples from four other families that were Crohn’s-free. These subjects were from France and Belgium.

The study showed that there were interactions between fungi and bacteria for those with Crohn’s. The culprits were the bacteria: E. coli and Serratia marcescens, and the fungus called Candida tropicalis. It appears that for the patients with the disease, the presence of these three are remarkably higher. It appears that these three interact with each other in the intestines.

The research results indicated that this is the first occurrence for the bacteria Serratia marcescens and any type of fungus to be linked to Crohn’s in humans.

The researchers discovered through test-tube research that the microorganisms coordinate with each other to create a biofilm that results to inflammation and the cause of the disease. 

Ghannoum said, “These organisms have evolved together so that they can operate to protect each other and at the same time cause problems to the host, or the patient.”

The study concluded that for sick patients, they had a reduced number of good bacteria in their intestines compared to healthier patients.

Ghannoum also added, “Among hundreds of bacterial and fungal species inhabiting the intestines, it is telling that the three we identified were so highly correlated in Crohn’s patients.” The author continued, “Furthermore, we found strong similarities in what may be called the ‘gut profiles’ of the Crohn’s-affected families, which were strikingly different from the Crohn’s-free families.”

The author wanted to emphasize that conclusions about the bacterial and fungal interaction must not be finalized since there are other numerous factors that should be considered. These factors include family lifestyles like diet and environment.

Ghannoum stated, “We also looked at healthy people and found what are the good bugs, or microorganisms, that keep the balance.” He added, “So now we want to see if we can use some of these good bugs to control the bad ones.”

The author said that studying how the bad microorganisms work together can influence the advancement of a drug that is capable of cutting or disrupting the connection.

Ghannoum is determined to proceed with the research study. He is hopeful that his team will be able to come up with new ways to treat Crohn’s disease.

He said, “I think that within five years, with a bit of luck, we’ll be able to move into what’s called translational research which means you take your research findings and start working to develop a drug or probiotic.”    

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/new-research-on-crohns-disease-show.html

Ibuprofen Is Linked to Heart Failure, Research Shows

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A recent study has discovered that ibuprofen, the well-known and commonly used drug as a painkiller, increases the risk of heart failure.

The research results showed that this drug poses a risk and it increases the chances of the condition by 20 per cent. Those who take the drug regularly were warned to lower the dosage and to limit the frequency or the interval of taking the medicine.

The study involved 10 million patients. In the British Medical Journal, it was stated: “The risk of hospital admission for heart failure associated with current use of NSAIDs appears to vary between individual [drugs]. Risk of admission is doubled for some used at very high doses.”

Ibuprofen is a kind of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug) that is used by people to treat muscle pain and even fever.

NSAIDs are ordinarily prescribed to those who suffer from joint pain and fever. However, the NHS claims that not everyone can be compatible with this drug; there are those who experience adverse side effects.

Peter Weissberg, a professor at the British Heart Foundation, said: “It has been known for some years that such drugs need to be used with caution in patients with, or at high risk of heart disease.”

The professor added that this study acts as a strong reminder for medical practitioners to consider such factors when they prescribe NSAID use for their patients. For patients, they should abide by the dosage guidelines by taking the lowest effective dose.

In Italy, the research team from the University of Milano-Bicocca discovered that current use of NSAIDs is related to an increased risk compared with previous use. They correlated this with factors such as the type of NSAID drug and the dosage intake.

Dr. Tim Chico, a Reader in Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Sheffield, mentioned that heart failure can be caused by factors such as blood pressure, heart attacks, alcohol intake and obesity.

He continued, “It seems unlikely that NSAIDs would cause problems in people with otherwise healthy hearts, but they may unmask heart failure due to these other causes.”

An analysis was conducted for subjects aged over 18 years old from the UK, Holland, Germany and Italy. The study involved 27 NSAID drugs, and this went on from 2000-2010.

A whopping 92,163 hospital admissions were related to heart failure and linked with the 8,246,403 control patients. The risk of hospital admission due to this condition is increased by 19 percent and it is connected to current NSAID use. 

Are you aware of the negative effects? Are you following your doctor’s prescription or do you go beyond the guidelines? It might be time to re-evaluate habits involving NSAID drugs.

Helen Williams said: “The link between use of NSAIDs and increased risk of heart failure is well-established.”

Williams is a consultant pharmacist at the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. She added, “People regularly purchasing NSAIDs over the counter, such as ibuprofen, should seek advice from their pharmacist or doctor. People needing treatment with long-term or frequent short courses should be regularly assessed.”

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/ibuprofen-is-linked-to-heart-failure.html

Qigong Made Simple

The simple, yet highly effective art of movement for improved performance.

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Kid Food Fix: Scratch Made Mac and Cheese

Adults often underestimate the ability of kids to enjoy complex foods.

As a parent, I think a lot about what my kids put into their bodies. I made the transition to healthier eating when my older children were just starting elementary school. This means many of their food habits were already established and it was a challenge to get my family on board without immediately turning up their noses. Admittedly, my kids, like many others, ate a lot of boxed convenience “kid” foods and didn’t get a large variety of vegetables. My third child was born just as I was changing over to a nutritious whole foods lifestyle.

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Thursday, September 29, 2016

Top Worst Condiments You Can Eat

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Worst condiments you can eat are those that you think you commonly treat as healthy but are in fact not very well suited to promote good health, but there are alternative options that are better.

Worst condiments you can eat are those that you commonly see everyday

You may not be aware of it, but hopefully you don’t get too discouraged about what you may be about to discover. But hey, it’s all for the best, right?

So, here’s a list of the worst condiments that you should avoid.

Soy Sauce

What? Isn’t soy touted as a wonder food? Well, if you’re talking about the soybean, then yes that is true. But when you talk about soy sauce, then that is another thing.

Soy sauce may not be high in calories, but try to taste a drop and you could tell that it is loaded with sodium. Also, having too much soy sauce can interfere with digestion and in face, can interfere with hormone production.

Try healthier alternatives like coconut or liquid aminos and tamari or you can look for low-sodium organic soy sauce. It may cost a bit more compared to the regular ones, but it sure can make up for the risks that come along with it.

Ketchup

Store- bought ketchup is high in added sugar and a load of artificial ingredients. Many, if not most, processed ketchup bought in stores are also loaded with artificial preservatives to prolong shelf life.

This is the primary reason why organic and fresh ketchup may be a bit pricey, but at least you have a good and healthier alternative. You can even make homemade ketchup using basic and fresh ingredients but you need to have it consumed right away before it turns stale.

You can also use fresh tomatoes to ensure that get a kick out of the lycopene from fresh ones.

BBQ Sauce

Why waste money on store bought barbecue sauce that’s chuck full of artificial ingredients, sugar and food preservatives? Store-bought barbecue sauces are made with made with additives to enhance flavour and freshness to extend shelf life.

It is also made with lots of sugar to make it more tasty and tempting. But since you may want to switch to a fresh batch, you can make your own barbecue sauce. There may be quite a number of ingredients that you can use, still it would be your best option because you know what goes into your homemade sauce.

Pickle Relish

Most brands on supermarket shelves use artificial colouring lots and lots of sugar and preservatives. You can even make your own using sliced or shredded cucumber together with onion, vinegar and a little bit of sugar just to balance the taste between the sour and sweet.

So the next time you try to your well-loved condiment, you surely would not want to miss out on the flavour.

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/top-worst-condiments-you-can-eat.html

Family Health: Cancer Passed On Through Genetics

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The genes in your body manage how the cells work. They are also in charge of the cells’ growth and division. Changes in one or more genes in a cell might possibly result to cancer. 

These changes are known as faults or mutations. It is known that this disease is the effect of lifestyle choices and rarely related to genes. However, genes can be the cause of these irregularities. With this in mind, it’s highly probable to inherit the disease from parents and grandparents. It is likely to be passed on through genes.

These changes result to cancer if there six or more faults in a cell. This will lead to abnormal functions such as uncontrollable growth and division of cells. It usually happens as people reach a certain age. When people get older, there are random mistakes when a cell divides. If you get exposed to sunlight or cigarette smoke, it increases the occurrence of these changes.

The gene changes can be cancerous however, it does not involve all body cells nor are they inherited. These cannot be transferred on to the offspring. Even though cancer is such a common disease, only a small number of all cancers are inherited.

Inherited cancer genes are the faulty genes that raise the chances of passing the disease from parent to offspring.  This occurs when an egg or sperm cell contains faulty genes.  If this is the case, inheriting a copy of the genes means that it is not capable of repairing damaged cell DNA. These can then turn into cancerous cells.

The genes are inherited from both parents. The child has 1 in 2 chance of getting the disease if a both parents have gene faults.

Cancers caused by gene changes due to aging are more common than the cancers caused by inherited faulty genes. Most cases of cancer progress because of environment factors combined with chance. Although this is the case, around 5-10% of all the disease cases involve people with inherited genetic changes. This definitely increases the risk of cancer.

In order to be certain of your condition, there are tests for gene faults that can help identify the risks for breast, bowel, ovarian, womb, and prostate cancer. For rare gene faults, test for kidney, skin, and thyroid cancer, and even a type of eye cancer called retinoblastoma are also available. There is no final word yet when gene tests for other types of cancers will be made available but research is consistently being conducted. 

Predictive genetic testing is capable of showing if there are distinctive changes in your genes, not the presence of cancer.  This test can give you possibilities about what may happen, but this cannot give you a definite answer as to what will happen.

These tests may not be perfect and interpretations may vary. However, you always have the option to consult a reputable genetics counselor. They should be able to set the right expectations from the test results.

Who are the candidates for testing? Based from Cancer Research UK, the situations indicated below should be indicative of a cancer history in the family:

Two or more close relatives on one side of the family have had the disease.

The family has relatives that have had the same type of cancer or different type of cancers that can be caused by the same gene fault

The relatives were below the age of 50 when the cancer started manifesting.

If a family member has a gene fault discovered through genetic testing.

If you are high at risk, according to the American Cancer Society, the most effective way to combat the disease is to do the simple tasks indicated below:

  • Maintaining a healthy diet.
  • Avoid smoking or smokers.
  • Daily or weekly exercise.
  • Observing a healthy weight.

Stay protected, even under the heat of the sun.

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/family-health-cancer-passed-on-through.html

WHO Map Confirms: World Breathes Polluted Air

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An interactive map released by the World Health Organization confirms that almost everyone in the world breathes polluted air. The map was made public last Tuesday, and it proves that 92% of the earth’s population is no longer breathing fresh air. Outdoor air quality is not within the WHO guidelines anymore, and that means a lot of people are inhaling polluted air.

Dr. Maria Neira, the director for the Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, states that it is a health issue because air pollution is harmful to the major organs that include the lungs, heart and brain.

The WHO reports that air pollution accounts for 3 million deaths, annually. These cases are linked to outdoor air exposure. 

Neira also added, “What is still surprising is the fact that we have been alerting about these horrible figures for a while now, and it’s not improving.” WHO noticed an apparent rise of 8% in air pollution levels from 2008 to 2013.

The WHO map was based on the annual data for particulate matter or PM. This is an air pollutant – it can be in the form of dust or pollen that we see. These are pretty small particles. There are different types as well: PM10 is said to be one-seventh the thickness of human hair whereas the diameter of PM2.5 is fewer than 2.5 micrometers.

The information was based from the year 2008 until 2015, within 3,000 locations in 103 countries.

Dr. Neira mentioned, “With more accurate methodology and satellite information and better calculation of the estimates and using the standards, now we can be more confident in the data.”

The measurements were taken and used for the map because particulate matter is a serious public health risk that concerns everyone around the globe. WHO air quality guidelines state that PM2.5 levels should only be within 10 micrograms per cubic meter, as this is the most dangerous kind. This PM includes pollutants that can affect the lungs and cardiovascular system. The new map reveals awareness that this is not the case – 92% of the earth’s population is now living in locations that exceed the air quality guidelines.

Jim Zhang, a professor of global and environmental health at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment and the Duke Global Health Institute said, “We also have data to show how PM2.5 affects the lung and the cardiovascular health. For example, PM2.5 exposure increases tissue and systemic inflammation, increases oxidative damage to DNA and cell membrane lipids, increases the risk for thrombosis.” He continued, “We also started to see cumulating evidence that PM2.5 lowers birth weight and impairs metabolic, cognitive and immune function.”

Stuart Batterman, professor of environmental health sciences at the University of Michigan said, “Those health effects can include aggravation or causation of asthma, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, hospitalizations and death.” 

Zhang and Batterman were not involved in the WHO map.

The WHO found that 90% of the deaths were related to air pollution. These occur in places that belong to low- and middle-income countries particularly in Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions.

Air quality is not only affected by human activity. Natural dust and dust storms are responsible for influencing air quality as well.

Batterman said, “Many of the places that have high levels of pollution have very little monitoring data, and this includes countries highlighted in the report, including most of Africa and much of the developing world.”

“Air pollution is causing millions of deaths per year, mostly but not exclusively in the developing world, due to very poorly controlled combustion as well as indoor air problems from the use of biomass fuels indoors, such as wood, dung and coal,” he added.

Based on the map, major cities are included as well. Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Paris and London are affected.

There is a need to improve air quality but this can be achieved once the sources of pollution have been identified.

Improving air quality means assessing the sources of pollution. Zhang mentioned that government involvement is necessary as regulations will facilitate the progress of cleaner technologies and enforce usage of pollution-controlled devices.

One major example is the vehicular traffic in urban cities. With the help of the government authorities, pollution can be reduced by decreasing the number of vehicles through the use of public transportation, or electric vehicles.

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/who-map-confirms-world-breathes.html

Can Infertility Be Solved? Baby With 3 Genetic Parents

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A breathtaking discovery involving a baby with three genetic parents had taken place. An infertility doctor has claimed that he has helped facilitate the conception of a baby using the DNA from three adults.

Dr. John Zhang is affiliated with the New Hope Fertility Center in Manhattan. Just this year, he went a long way by travelling to Mexico to do the procedure for the Jordanian couple. It appears that Zhang helped them out because the couple already lost two children to Leigh, a neurological disorder that can be passed on to the offspring.

The main purpose of this procedure is to help families with genetic disorders conceive healthy babies. However, this process has been deemed controversial. Last February, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine gathered a12-member panel and they came up with a plan how to ethically continue this type of research.

When two groups of American scientists asked for FDA’s consent, the administration requested the report. However, even with the report, the Food and Drug Administration claims that Congress had declined the requests to push through with the procedure.

Because of this, the doctor had to go to Mexico. 

The birth of the baby made huge waves in the scientific community. It garnered both positive and negative opinions. There are those who strongly believe that this could be beneficial for those women who are suffering from genetic disorders.

Owen K. Davis, president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, said in a statement, “This work represents an important advancement in reproductive medicine.”

The doctor is going to showcase the facts about the case at the Salt Lake City meeting next month. 

There are those who can’t quite agree with the procedure. Some claim that it was not a responsible move because the research associated to the procedure is not enough to prove that it was indeed safe and harmless.

In a correspondence to NPR, Paul Knoepfler wrote, “This is a troubling development on a number of levels.” Knoepfler is a cell biologist at the University of California, Davis. He added, “It could have gone wrong in any number of ways and still could.”

Some are afraid that it could pave way for an even greater dilemma: the designer babies trend. In this case, parents have the option to cherry pick the characteristics of the child.

David King, head of Human Genetics Alert London said in an email, “This is entrepreneurial reproductive technology at its most unethical and irresponsible.” He continued, “When are the world’s governments going to stop rogue scientists crossing crucial ethical lines?”

Dieter Egli from University Medical Center mentioned in his email, “While exciting, there appears to be problems with the study.”   He said that there are possibilities of embryo abnormalities found in Zhang’s presentation. 

He said, “For a technique pioneered and developed in the U.S., it be fitting to see the benefits to patients here as well.” He added, “Because of funding restrictions to the FDA, promising medical advances are forced to move elsewhere.”

In order to provide a solution for women who carry genetic disorders like the Leigh syndrome, there are numerous procedures developed by scientists to replace the mitochondrial DNA with healthy DNA. Leigh syndrome is one of the mitochondrial disorders that occur because of mitochondrial DNA mutations.

Zhang removed the DNA from the nucleus of the eggs that were donated by women bearing healthy mitochondrial DNA. Take note that the DNA in the nucleus of the eggs is the one responsible for the genetic details that comprise a person. All information related to the person’s being such as the physical attributes.

The doctor removed the nuclear DNA from the eggs of the patient who wanted to bear the healthy child. He then placed the healthy DNA to the donor egg, which is then fertilized with the husband’s sperm.

He made five embryos and only one matured normally. The embryo was then implanted to the woman and it finally gave way to the birth of a healthy boy. The boy is incapable of transferring the transplanted DNA to future offspring because the mitochondrial DNA can only be transferred from women to their children. This fact neatly sidesteps ethical concerns related to the procedure.

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from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/can-infertility-be-solved-baby-with-3.html

What Women Should Eat to Build Muscle

If you’re looking for information to help you build muscle, you’ve come to the right place.

SAVE UP TO 40%! Our flagship training program is on sale! Click to get it now! At Girls Gone Strong, we believe that what is “right” for you is entirely up to you, and that the ultimate way to empower you is to give you the space to make all of the decisions you want about your life and your body, from how you choose to exercise, to how you want to look and feel in your body.

cass-bicep-450x340Lately, we’re noticing a growing interest among women who want to increase their muscle mass, and we couldn’t be happier! It’s exciting to see women shedding concerns about “getting bulky” and deliberately working toward muscle gain. It’s even more exciting to see women embrace the strength and confidence gained through resistance training—along with the physical changes that reflect those gains and their hard work.

Before we talk about how to build muscle, it’s important to understand a bit about the physiology behind muscle growth.

You may have heard that skeletal muscle (the type of muscle to which we’re referring when we talk about building more muscle) is made up of special types of protein, primarily actin and myosin, and their subtypes and supporting proteins. These muscle proteins, and other bodily proteins (such as enzymes, and hormones), are created and repaired from the available free amino acids floating around in the bloodstream. These free amino acids are known as the Free Amino Acid Pool and are derived from dietary protein—foods like chicken, meat, fish, eggs, whey, and dairy—but your body can also supply them by breaking down its own proteins when dietary protein intake is inadequate.

Skeletal muscle protein is in a state of constant metabolic turnover.1 This means that throughout the day, the body is constantly breaking down muscle (known as muscle protein breakdown – MPB) and rebuilding it (known as muscle protein synthesis – MPS). This process is a normal part of daily energy expenditure (commonly known as Resting Energy Expenditure – REE) and is necessary for maintaining and building strong, healthy muscle.

Muscle breakdown happens while you are in a fasted state (such as overnight, while sleeping), or when amino acids (from protein) are not readily available between meals. Muscle is also broken down during exercise. Though that might sound like a bad thing, it actually isn’t. Muscle protein synthesis is enhanced in the post-exercise period.2

Food intake slows muscle protein breakdown and initiates muscle protein synthesis; exercise augments this effect. As such, eating food (especially protein foods) and exercising, (especially strength training) are important aspects of building more muscle.2

If your goal is to develop more muscle mass and get stronger, pay attention to the following:

  1. An optimal muscle-building diet must contain adequate protein. Strength-training women should aim for 1.7 to 1.8 grams protein per kilogram of bodyweight each day.3 For a 140-pound woman (63.6 kg), this equals approximately 115 grams of protein. More specifically, this protein should come from complete protein foods like those from animal sources (meat, dairy) and/or complete vegetarian sources like pea or hemp. The reason complete protein sources are so important is because only Essential Amino Acids which are found abundantly in complete protein, stimulate muscle protein synthesis and halt breakdown.
  1. The only way to build muscle is with serious strength-training.1 However, considering that you’re reading a site called Girls Gone Strong, chances are you’re probably already doing some of that. Even though the post-exercise period stimulates muscle protein synthesis, it is not enough to overcome the muscle breakdown that also occurs. This is where proper nutrition comes in. Strength training works synergistically with optimal caloric and protein intake to repair and build muscle protein, resulting in muscle hypertrophy (muscle growth).

The emphasis of this article is on nutritional considerations for muscle hypertrophy, so I will limit the discussion of resistance training here, and instead focus on the importance of dietary protein, as well as the impact of adequate calories, carbohydrates and creatine supplementation, since those are major factors that support muscle growth.

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How Much Protein Does It Take?

For decades, research has been conducted to determine the ideal quantity of protein needed for muscle protein synthesis. Historically, the majority of this research has been performed in men. The limited science looking at differences between men and women indicates that men may have a higher protein requirement than women because they oxidize (burn) more amino acids at rest and in exercise.5 only-way-is-up-protein-steak-450x338Since accurate information pertaining to women is hard to come by, you can choose to follow these guidelines exactly, or modify based on your own personal experiences.

With regards to total amount of protein, the recommendation of 1.7 to 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day, appears to apply fairly accurately to women.3,4 Some people feel that more protein than this is even more effective, but researchers have shown that the muscle-building effect tops out at 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram per day.7 The benefits of a higher intake of dietary protein extend beyond muscle hypertrophy:

  1. Protein is more thermogenic than carbohydrates or fats, so it may help burn more calories in a meal.6
  2. Protein is more satiating, so it helps control appetite, and is less likely to be stored as body fat than carbohydrates or fats when total calorie intake is not excessive.6
  3. Protein is an energy source for exercising muscles, not as much as carbohydrates and fats, but if carbohydrates and fats are not well-tolerated, protein can be used as fuel.6
  4. Protein can help prevent blood sugar spikes or dips because it converts to glucose more slowly than carbohydrates.27

Research has suggested that there is a ceiling for how much muscle protein can be synthesized per gram of protein eaten per meal – termed the “muscle full effect”.8 Researchers found that 20 to 30 grams of protein in a meal is all the body can use to stimulate protein synthesis.8 However, as noted by Philips et al, 20154, these dose-response studies have been limited to lower-body resistance exercises, thus it remains unknown whether or not the absolute dose of protein required to maximally stimulate hypertrophy following upper and lower body exercises is greater than 20 to 30 grams (in other words: research isn’t perfect and does not represent every person in the population, so this “limit” per meal may not be factual).

Philips et al have found, with further whole-body resistance training research in men, that the maximum increase in protein synthesis was achieved with a protein dose of 0.25 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per meal (for the average 190-pound guy (86.3 kg), this is 22 grams of protein).4 To account for differences among men, they suggest a dose of 0.4 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight to achieve maximum muscle growth (35 grams of protein for that 190-pound guy). For a 140-pound woman, this is 25 grams of high quality protein at a meal. proteinpowders-450x262Further, because protein synthesis slows down quickly after protein ingestion (within three to four hours), it is wise to consume complete protein regularly throughout the day to keep synthesis as high as possible.4 If you are vegetarian, choose a complete protein powder such as pea, rice, or hemp, or combine vegetable protein sources to obtain a complete protein profile in your meals. (You can read more about this strategy in this article all about protein.)

The Essential Amino Acid leucine, one of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), found in high abundance in complete protein, is believed to be particularly important for muscle gains.9 The other two BCAAs, valine and isoleucine, don’t seem to have this same effect.10 Leucine positively affects muscle protein balance by reducing protein breakdown and stimulating synthesis, similar to exercise. However, leucine’s effect on synthesis seems to be short-lived, and a longer duration of sustained protein synthesis requires that other essential amino acids, especially the remaining BCAAs, be present. Thus, leucine is the stimulator of protein synthesis, and essential amino acids are the sustainers.11 In order to achieve optimal synthesis from leucine, researchers have proposed the concept of a leucine threshold (also termed “leucine trigger”).12 It’s been shown that a two-gram dose of leucine (found in approximately 20 grams of high-quality complete protein, such as whey) is needed to achieve this effect, although variations in body size would influence how much is actually required (less for smaller people, more for larger).13 Consuming 20 to 30 grams of whey protein right after a workout is one of the best ways to get this two-gram dose of leucine. You can also choose six ounces of chicken, turkey, lean beef, flank steak, salmon, white fish, or tuna, which supply between 2.5 and 2.9 grams of leucine. Other purified protein powders, like pea protein and hemp, also provide a good amount of leucine. Further, individual BCAA supplement mixes provide at least two grams of leucine and can be consumed post workout.

The practical application of this research on protein intake is the following:

  1. Total daily total protein intake should be at least 117 grams of protein for a 140-pound woman.
  2. Eat meals containing 25 grams of complete protein regularly throughout the day.
  3. Emphasize protein foods rich in leucine, providing about two grams of leucine, particularly following a strength training workout.

Does the timing matter?

The body stimulates protein synthesis as a response to strength training for up to 48 hours, but muscle breakdown also lasts for 24 hours.2 Following exercise, there is a two-day window in which the body can build muscle with optimal nutrition, and one day during which muscle breakdown is greatest. Resistance training primes the muscle to take up amino acids and promote muscle tissue growth, but this process must overcome protein breakdown with proper food intake. Thus, the 24-hour post-exercise period is one of the most important times to consume protein and adequate calories.

creatine-woman-drinking-from-shaker-bottle-450x340When the goal is hypertrophy, consuming protein before a resistance training workout may not offer any additional benefit to taking in protein soon after exercise is complete.8 Some researchers even speculate that pre-workout protein may actually blunt the post-workout boost in protein synthesis due to an overlap in the muscle-full effect. Thus, timing protein one hour before and one hour after a full hour of training might be OK, but having protein immediately before, throughout, and right after exercise may be excessive and unnecessary.4

Schoenfeld et al conducted a meta-analysis looking at the timing of protein intake in relation to exercise. In this, they stated total protein was a better predictor of hypertrophy than timing, but the post-exercise period is still the best time to rehydrate fluids, replenish muscle glycogen, and repair the muscle with protein (three R’s).14

Overall, contrary to popular advice you may have heard in the past, there might not be an “anabolic window” of opportunity for optimal muscle protein synthesis following a workout.4 What seems to be more important is adequate total daily protein, and essential amino acid with leucine intake before or after your workout, but not necessarily at both times.

What about calories?

I’ve written before that calories are those tiny creatures that live in your closet and sew your clothes a little bit tighter each night. I joke, of course, but the truth is that increasing calorie intake tends to confuse and scare some women—particularly women who are accustomed to dieting and restricting calories and are suddenly advised to eat more to achieve a positive caloric balance in order to build muscle. Fat gain is a legitimate concern for many women who are shifting toward a new and different physique goal such as hypertrophy.

It is normal to gain some body fat along with muscle during this process, but that effect can be minimized with the proper training and nutrition strategies in place.

Adequate caloric intake has a profound effect on the ability to build muscle.

Caloric Deficit

During periods of excessive caloric deficit, the body favors protein breakdown over synthesis. You may be in excessive caloric deficit if you’re experiencing some or all of the following:

  1. Your body doesn’t recover well after exercise and is excessively sore after a workout, especially if you are usually accustomed to hard training.
  2. You are unusually fatigued.
  3. Your desire to exercise is low.
  4. Your mood and/or sleep are negatively affected.

You may be wondering how it’s possible for women who compete in figure or fitness competitions to look incredibly muscular though they are definitely in a caloric deficit. What you’re seeing in many cases is the result of a massive loss of body fat and preservation of some of the muscle that they previously built. During this phase, they are not focused on building new muscle. In fact, they will lose some muscle mass (and strength) in this process, but they formed a great foundation of muscle before dieting for competition.

It’s common for physique and bodybuilding competitors (male and female) to go through various training seasons within a year, determined by their competitions. In their off-season, they may focus on “bulking,” (adding muscle, as well as some body fat). It’s not sustainable for most competitors to remain that lean throughout the year, so they eat and train in a way that allows them to maximize muscle gain, and then lose a lot of body fat for competition.

Caloric Balance

Being in caloric balance—eating just enough energy to sustain exercise and daily metabolic processes—is also not optimal for muscle growth. During periods of energy balance, the constant breakdown of proteins in the body (not just muscle proteins) is replenished by skeletal muscle because the caloric input is still not enough to support both metabolic needs and muscle growth.15 Although resistance training counteracts some of these losses, the anabolic response of muscle is still blunted, which compromises muscle growth.4

Caloric Surplus

Alternatively, a positive energy balance is a potent stimulator of muscle hypertrophy, even in the absence of resistance training, provided that the intake of dietary protein is adequate.16 While actively pursuing muscle gains, some body fat may accumulate. This is to be expected, but it should not be excessive. This is common among bodybuilders, both male and female. They will “bulk up” between competitions—to gain the maximum amount of muscle, despite a little bit of fat gain. They then diet down for 12 to 16 weeks to lose fat and reveal all that newly developed muscle.

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Combining resistance training with a surplus of calories is the best way to build the most muscle and strength. If you want to minimize fat gain during this process, and are an experienced trainee, you don’t need to increase your calories excessively to elicit a hypertrophic response. It seems that people who have been training for a while need less of a caloric surplus to gain muscle than untrained people.17 If gaining muscle is your goal, it’s important to remember that you may not be lean and “shredded” during this time, however, fluctuations in body fat are normal and healthy for all women. Many women cannot sustain extreme leanness year-round.

How do you know if you’re eating the right amount of calories?

You may be wondering, “Well, how many calories do I need to eat to build muscle? What’s the magic number?” There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question. Everyone’s metabolism is a different, and individual energy needs will vary from person to person. My recent article about calorie counting as well as Laura Schoenfeld’s article about under-eating both offer some guidance in determining your calorie needs.

What about carbohydrates?

Contrary to popular belief, there is no essential carbohydrate requirement. In fact, your body can make all the glucose (which is the breakdown product of carbs) you need from amino acids and fatty acids through a process called gluconeogenesis. Nevertheless, it does use large amounts of carbohydrate for exercise energy expenditure. Carbohydrates are stored in your muscle tissue in the form of glycogen, which your muscles breakdown during exercise to create ATP/energy.21

The majority of the ATP production in your body (about 80 percent) comes from glycogen breakdown, not protein or fat oxidation.18 When your body is low in glycogen, such as when you follow a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet, you may feel very lethargic and weak when you exercise. Some people adapt to this low-carb state as their bodies switch to using fat as a fuel source (stored in the muscle tissue as triglycerides), and energy production from dietary protein is upregulated.

However, unless someone has an intolerance to carbohydrates, which occurs in people with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, most fit and healthy people benefit from carbs in the diet to maximize exercise and athletic performance.

When it comes to hypertrophy, low-carb diets still allow the body to build muscle. During my time at UCONN working toward my PhD, we conducted a strength training study in men that compared a low-fat diet to a low-carb ketogenic diet (a diet containing less than 50 grams of carbs per day) with resistance training.19 Each subject in this study was required to drink a protein drink providing 20 grams of whey protein following their resistance training workout, which they performed three times a week (See Table 1 below for training example). The resistance workout involved compound, full-body, and isolation movements, and was challenging for each participant. After 12 weeks, we found that the low-carb diet resulted in just as much muscle gain (assessed by DEXA) as the low-fat diet and had a significantly greater loss of body fat. The difference in body fat between the groups may have been due to total protein intake (the low-carb group ingested far more daily protein than the low-fat group) and average age of the groups (the low-carb group had younger participants in it). Overall, we showed that a low-carb diet did not negatively impact the ability to gain muscle. A study like this has not been done in women, so the implications for females are not known.

musclebuilding-table-from-study-576x290

Carbohydrate is also highly regarded for muscle gain due to its association with the hormone insulin. This hormone blunts protein breakdown and is considered an important stimulator of muscle hypertrophy, especially in the post-workout period. However, insulin and carbohydrates do not stimulate protein synthesis.20, we can not discount that slowing muscle breakdown in the presence of synthesis (stimulated by amino acids) will result in greater muscle gain.

Given that carbohydrate foods are one of the major drivers of insulin secretion, it’s often pushed in post-workout nutrition, especially if you exercise in a fasted, low-insulin state. Carbohydrates also replenish muscle glycogen used during exercise. Some people mistakenly believe that if some insulin is good to stop protein breakdown and refill glycogen stores, then spiking insulin with a maximum amount of carbohydrates must be even better. That’s #BroScience, and we don’t advise doing it.

protein-dinner-450x301There is an insulin threshold to prevent muscle breakdown and push glucose into muscle to replenish glycogen. The impact of insulin on net muscle protein balance has been shown to plateau at three to four times fasting levels.22 A normal meal following a workout can achieve this effect one to two hours after consumption, and levels remain elevated for three to six hours (or longer) depending on the size of the meal and the person’s individual response. For example, researchers found that a meal containing 75 grams of carbohydrate, 37 grams of protein, and 17 grams of fat raised insulin concentrations threefold over fasting conditions within a half hour after consumption, and increased to fivefold after one hour. At the five-hour mark, levels remained double those seen during fasting.23 If you eat a big meal before your workout, your insulin levels will stay high. Hence, the need to rapidly reverse muscle protein breakdown with insulin stimulation is only necessary if you don’t eat before exercise.21

Another aspect about insulin that many people fail to remember is that whey protein (from protein shakes and dairy), stimulates insulin secretion. Therefore, dairy or whey protein alone can promote synthesis and prevent breakdown.

The rationale for still including carbohydrate in your post workout meal is to help replenish glycogen used during training. Carbs provide the glucose, which gets stored in your muscle as glycogen, and insulin directs glucose there.

How much carbohydrate should you consume daily? According to Schoenfeld, in studies conducted mostly in men, only a moderate amount of dietary carbohydrate is needed for enhancing exercise performance and producing optimal hypertrophy.21 It is unclear exactly how much carbohydrate intake is needed for maximizing exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy, but three grams per kilogram per day is a reasonable starting point.21 For a 140-pound woman, this is about 190 grams of carbohydrate per day (about 763 calories) from whole food sources like grains, potatoes and sweet potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and residual carbohydrates in protein foods. For women in a caloric surplus with the goal of hypertrophy, this seems reasonable.

However, as my mentor Jeff Volek PhD, RD and I wrote in a peer-reviewed paper in 2006, women do not store as much glycogen in muscle as men in response to the same dose of dietary carbohydrate, and it is unclear in women how dietary carbohydrate influences muscle hypertrophy.24 Also, some women (especially those who have competed in bodybuilding or figure competitions in the past) have elevated insulin responses to carbohydrates, so they may require less carbohydrate in their diet.24 Each woman’s needs are different and she should listen to her own body to find her ideal nutritional breakdown.

The menstrual cycle can also influence the body’s responses to dietary macronutrients. In the first 14 days of a woman’s cycle, her body will use and respond more favorably to dietary carbs. In the latter 14 days, her body uses more dietary fats.25 As such, using your cycle as a guide for tailoring your carbohydrate intake may be something to consider.

Overall, some women may do better with less than three grams of carbs per kilogram per day during some times of the month, or just in general. Listen to your body and experiment with what works best for you.

Creatine Considerations

Finally, let’s talk about creatine because this supplement is very much associated with strength training. I wrote an article about creatine for women, and I strongly encourage you to read it, especially if you are unfamiliar with this supplement:

creatine-powder-teaspoon-350x375While there is quite a lot of research on creatine, there have been just a few studies examining creatine use in women. The available research to date shows that it can help a woman build strength, which is often attributed to increased muscle mass.

In a recent study in women, researchers looked at the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and body composition with strength training. Nineteen sedentary women were assigned to a creatine group (10) or a placebo group (9). They consumed 20 grams per day of creatine for five days and then tapered down to five grams of creatine or placebo for 10 weeks.26

The scientists found that after 10 weeks, increases in 1RM (one-rep max) leg press, leg extension and squat were 20 to 25 percent greater in the creatine group than the placebo group. More importantly, they saw that fat-free mass (muscle and non-fat tissues in the body) increased to a greater degree in the creatine group.26 Overall, in untrained women, creatine supplementation enhanced strength and body composition responses to resistance training. Thus, creatine is a prudent addition to your diet if you are looking to maximize strength and muscle gains.

Summary of Nutritional Recommendations for Building Muscle

By now you have a better understanding on how your body builds muscle and which dietary nutrients help maximize your body’s response to strength training. For best results, in addition to performing resistance training workouts, follow these four nutrition guidelines:

  1. Consume adequate protein daily, at every meal, and ensure that you’re consuming a complete protein after each workout, especially one rich in leucine, like whey protein.
  2. Take in adequate daily calories, and ideally achieve a positive caloric balance.
  3. Select whole-food carbohydrate sources to replenish muscle glycogen and prevent protein breakdown.
  4. Add creatine supplementation at a dose of three to five grams per day.

I want to emphasize one more thing: while these goal-specific nutrition strategies will support muscle building, the most important aspect of this process is resistance training. You can’t build muscle without applying external resistance.

Now, go forth, lift heavy, eat well, and watch those muscles grow!

And if you feel like you could use some guidance getting started, we can help!

At Girls Gone Strong, we want you to feel confident knowing that what you’re doing to look good, feel good, and feel healthy and strong are not only based on tested, reliable, and safe information from trustworthy sources, but that it is also effective and efficient.
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References

  1. Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise-Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism. Reidy PT, Rasmussen BB. J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):155-83. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.203208. Epub 2016 Jan 13. Review.
  2. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR. Am. J. Physiol. 1997. 273, E99–E107.
  3. Beyond the zone: protein needs of active individuals. Lemon PW. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19 (5 Suppl):513S-521S. Review
  4. Nutritionalinterventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle  Morton RW, McGlory C, Phillips SM. Front Physiol. 2015 Sep 3;6:245
  5. Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA et al. J Appl Physiol 1993;75:2134-2141
  6. Protein”requirements” beyond the RDA: implications for optimizing health. Phillips SM, Chevalier S, Leidy HJ. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 May;41(5):565-72.
  7. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Protein and Exercise. Campbell B, Kreider RB, Ziegenfuss T, La Bounty P , Roberts M, Burke D, Landis J, Lopez H, and Antonio J. J Int Soc Sports Nutr . 4: 8, 2007.
  8. Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between human muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. Atherton PJ, Etheridge T, Watt PW, Wilkinson D, Selby A, Rankin D, et al. . Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010. 92, 1080–1088
  9. Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on humanskeletal muscle protein metabolism. Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Hill DS, Phillips BE, Crossland H, Williams J, Loughna P, Churchward-Venne TA, Breen L, Phillips SM, Etheridge T, Rathmacher JA, Smith K, Szewczyk NJ, Atherton PJ. J Physiol. 2013 Jun 1;591(11):2911-23
  10. Amino acids: Metabolism, functions, and nutrition. Wu G. Amino Acids 37: 1-17, 2009
  11. Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. Phillips SM, and Van Loon LJ. J Sports Sci. 29 Suppl 1: S29-S38, 2011
  12. Nutritional modulation of training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations . Hawley JA, Burke LM, Phillips SM, and Spriet LL J Appl Physiol. 1985(110): 834-845, 2011
  13. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, Prior T, Tarnopolsky MA, and Phillips SM. J Clin Nutr. 89: 16 1-168, 2009
  14. The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. Schoenfeld BJ., Aragon AA, Krieger JW.  J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2013 10:53
  15. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss. McIver CM, Wycherley TP, and Clifton PM. Nutr Metab. (Lond.) 9: 83-7075-9-83, 2012.
  16. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans. Churchward-Venne TA, Murphy CH, Longland TM, and Phillips SM. Amino Acids 45: 231-240, 2013.
  17. Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes. Garthe, I, Raastad, T, Refsnes, PE, and Sundgot-Borgen, J. Eur J Sport Sci. 13: 295-303, 2013
  18. Fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: Application to bodybuilding. Lambert, CP , and Flynn, MG. Sports Med. 32: 511-522, 2002
  19. Low Carb Diets Promote a More Favorable Body Composition than Low Fat Diets. Volek JS, Quann EE, Forsythe CE. Strength and Conditioning Journal. Feb 2010. 32 (1), 42-27
  20. Glynn, EL, Fry , CS, Timmerman, KL, Drummond, MJ, Volpi, E, and Rasmussen, BB. Addition of carbohydrate or alanine to an essential amino acid mixture does not enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism. J Nutr. 143: 307-314, 2013.
  21. Science and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy. Schoenfeld BJ. Human Kinetics, 2016
  22. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle. Greenhaff, PL, Karagounis LG, Peirce N, Simpson EJ, Hazell M, La yfield R, Wackerhage H, Smith K, Atherton P, Selby A, and Rennie MJ. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 295: E595-E604, 2008
  23. Splanchnic and leg substrate exchange after ingestion of a natural mixed meal in humans. Capaldo B, Gastaldelli A, Antoniello S, Auletta M, Pardo F , Ciociaro D, Guida R, Ferrannini E, and Sacca L. Diabetes 48: 958-966, 1999
  24. Nutritional aspects of women strength athletes. Volek JS, Forsythe CE, Kraemer WJ. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Sep;40(9):742-8.
  25. Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Exercise Performance. X.A.K.J., De Jonge. 2003. Sports Medicine. Vol. 33, No. 11.
  26. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training. Vandenberghe K, Goris M, et al. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997 Vol. 83:6, 2055-2063
  27. Protein Controversies In Diabetes. Franz MJ. Diabetes Spectrum. 2000. Vol. 13:3, 132

 

 

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Winterize Your Brain with Vitamin D

If your brain does not work optimally, you do not work optimally.

If your brain does not work optimally, you do not work optimally. It is plain and simple. All of our brains need a variety of things in order to function properly, like fuel and oxygen. The next big one may be vitamin D, the one most of us get very little of throughout the winter—and guess what? “Winter is coming.”

 

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The Power of Intention

If you see your set before it happens, there is no question of your success.
How many of you are the best lifter you can be? How many of you take a level of concentration into your training that is unshakable? How many of you walk onto the training floor with such laser-like focus that you are completely tuned into every aspect of your movement? We all would love to say that was us. But in reality, all of us could step our game up. 
 
It all starts with intention. 

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Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Why You Should Be Taking Daily Multivitamins

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Taking daily multivitamins at the right amounts is critical for those who are building muscles where most of the time gets missed out due to food restrictions that were supposed to have these essential vitamins but are shunned due to other substances that are fattening.

Taking daily vitamins ensure that you can get the right dosage

Aside from dietary sources, multivitamins in supplement form can be good options to source the micronutrients that you lack in your body.

Micronutrients are important for the body to enhance biochemical processes that make one healthy and aids in muscle and tissue health, growth and recovery.

Sourcing essential micronutrients from food may oftentimes not be totally achieved due to its varying amounts in each food item, for which values are often not constant. Plus, environmental toxins also affect content due to inadequate soil quality and preparation processes like cooking or mixing with other ingredients can deplete the vitamin contents opf certain foods.

Multivitamins are essential for training

Bodybuilders, fitness buffs and athletes know what it means to satiate the body’s needs for these essential micronutrients as it helps not just in building muscle gains, but also promotes overall health and wellness.

Here are the essential nutrients the body needs for enhanced muscle gains and health;

Vitamin D

Studies show that Vitamin D is essential for playing a key role in boosting immune and muscle function.

Research conducted by a neutraceutical company suggests that  the body needs to have 4000 to 6000 IU of Vitamin D to gain the optimal effects of the vitamin in the body. It is needed by the body to break down calcium and phosphorus that are essential for muscle contraction and function, as well as bone strength and growth.

Phosphorus, on the other hand, is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate, an essential co-enzyme for the body that carries energy and boosts metabolism.

Omega 3 fatty acids

Commonly sourced from fish oil and other land based plant sources, Omega 3 fatty acids are one of the good fats for the body that helps reduce muscle protein breakdown.

Vitamin C

Aside from boosting immunity, Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that promote s cell membrane repair and prevents oxidative stress.  It is essential for the synthesis of collagen and elastin. It is also responsible for boosting health of the blood vessels that supports the need for nutrients and oxygen.

Vitamin E

This is an essential antioxidant that is highly effective against oxidative stress, by allowing the cell membrane to maximize its potential to promote cellular growth and function.

B complex vitamins

These vitamins are essential for muscle strength and heath.  B1 (thiamine)  and B6 (pyridoxine) increase the production of hemoglobin and the metabolism of protein, which are  all responsible for carrying oxygen to the blood stream and goes to the muscles and tissues.

  • B2 (riboflavin) and B3 (niacin) are essential in the metabolism of energy oxidation of fatty acids as well as with the production of energy.
  • B7 (biotin) is crucial to the metabolism of amino acids to synthesize protein in the body.
  • B15 (cyanocobalamin) helps in the maintenance of nerve tissues and metabolizes fat and carbohydrates in the body.

The post Why You Should Be Taking Daily Multivitamins appeared first on NUTRITION CLUB CANADA.





from The Nutrition Club http://thenutritionclub.blogspot.com/2016/09/why-you-should-be-taking-daily.html

3 Exercises to Build Your Kettlebell Swing

These exercises will take your swing to another level.

As I wrote in my last article, the kettlebell swing is one of those bang-for-your-buck exercises that touches on the important aspects of strength and endurance. While it’s a tremendous exercise and scalable for just about anyone, it does have a learning curve.

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